The (Un)Controllable Rise of Smart Clothing

In the second instalment of the Toronto Wearables Series in IP Osgoode’s IPilogue, I discussed how wearable technology, such as smart watches or smart headbands, has become somewhat common. Indeed, it has enabled users to conveniently stay updated on correspondence, plans, and even fitness schedules. Smart clothing, however, has been less thoroughly explored and advertised to date. In fact, the 2015-2025 decade has been identified as the “Wearable Era”. This new realm of innovation takes the smart technology away from the wrist and integrates it into materials that cover all areas of the body, which results in a host of benefits. However, balanced with these benefits is the risk of diminished privacy given the clothing’s ability to track any of the wearer’s bodily metrics. As a result, it is worthwhile to consider whether a regulatory solution could offer reconciliation.

Smart clothing offers a wide range of benefits. For example, athletes are now able to wear clothing during training that monitor a variety of helpful metrics including cadence, ground contact time, pelvic rotation, and stride length. This results in a more efficient training routine since athletes can entrust their smart clothing with accurate monitoring, which allows them to solely focus on their activities. Similar benefits apply to non-athletes, too. A collaboration between Levi and Google created the Commuter Trucker Jacket, which is connected to Google’s Project Jacquard Platform. This allows users to access music, GPS, and calling applications on their mobile devices without actually touching their telephones. Another company has created a swimsuit that uses Artificial Intelligence to protect its user from UV protection by notifying the user when she has been in the sun for too long. Furthermore, smart clothing now presents a solution for the segments of the population who need close medical monitoring, but cannot do so on their own, such as the elderly or infants. As a result, the benefits span from convenience to safety. Additionally, there is also a reduction in healthcare costs because of efficient and affordable wearables.

While both technology and fashion enthusiasts may be justifiably excited at the prospect of these innovations, there is also room for concern. Given the recent changes in fashion and the fact that technology is quickly getting to a point where it can evade all of our personal data by getting it directly from our bodies, privacy laws and implications must be considered. This also raises the question of how data collection from smart clothing is, in fact, different from data collection from another technological medium. Are new or revised regulations even necessary, or should the privacy concern be a technology-neutral one? Furthermore, how does smart clothing fit with the consent and information collection and analysis (i.e. data mining) requirements under The Personal Information Protection and Electronic Documents Act (“PIPEDA”)? Indeed, these questions have not yet been thoroughly researched and written about, which presents a ripe area for analysis.

However, before diving into a proposed approach to implement an effective solution to resolve the tension between privacy and smart clothing, it is worthwhile to consider its scope. While, a successful solution does not necessarily mean reinventing the wheel, certain regulatory adjustments need to be made given the high speed of technology and the unique invention of smart clothing. The key questions, therefore, are: should regulations surrounding smart clothing be technology neutral? What is the difference between smart clothing and smart phones? The next instalment in the series will focus on this.

The Dark Side of Wearable Technology

In an earlier post, I discussed how wearables are becoming prominent in modern life, with Toronto being a notable hotspot for technology development and related interest. From a legal perspective, there are two main concerns with wearable technology: privacy and product liability. This instalment in the Toronto Wearables Series will focus on the former.

The primary issue with smart clothing is that the articles are constantly collecting, transmitting, and storing data, which means that they have information that is often considered personal, private, sensitive, or confidential. This makes smart clothing’s data mining abilities extremely strong. This is compounded by the fact that this information can easily be posted on social media networks, making it available to not only “friends” of the user, but possibly also to unknown or untrusted parties. Furthermore, wearables are able to collect information discreetly, otherwise known as data mining, which results in the users not actually knowing what data is being collected.  This often means that users underestimate their privacy risks. In fact, a recent study showed that there is “a significant gap between reported concerns and actual users’ behaviors, reinforcing that users often sacrifice their privacy in exchange of benefits.” Put simply, the non-invasive biomedical, biochemical, and physical measurements of wearables have invasive implications for a user’s privacy. However, given the novelty of smart clothing, the extent of the impacts of these privacy concerns has not yet been fully understood. It is for this reason that empirical studies are necessary.

The same study collected a variety of online comments from users of wearables. Based on the consumer feedback, the study concluded that the primary privacy concerns are linked to the type of personal data that a given wearable device collects, stores, processes and shares. For example, there is a lower level of concern regarding smart accessories that are seen as a gadget (e.g. Fitbits), versus smart clothing that covers a large part of the body. Furthermore, embedded sensors, such as cameras and microphones, pick up data about the user and even people nearby, often without their awareness or consent. The nature of this data is frequently personal and confidential, which implicates privacy issues, especially with respect to surveillance. Other functions of wearables, such as heart rate monitors, glucometers, and activity trackers, can also be intrusive.

Interestingly, even though users perceived wrist-mounted devices as a non-invasive accessory from a privacy perspective, the study found a high associated risk. Indeed, there have been findings of an increased feeling of safety and confidence due to the user’s dependence on this type of wearable to track both biomedical data as well as daily movements that assist the user, such as the user’s location when in an unknown area. The ability to track location seems appropriate because of the convenience of having GSP at the ready. However, the communication of a user’s location information, without the control of the user, poses a substantial threat because once location is sensed and stored, it can then be shared online, in real time, through live social media feeds. Yet, given an appearance that is akin to a watch or a bracelet, wearables’ presence is often unnoticed, which means that the underlying privacy risk is not seen as a concern on a daily basis. Rather, a user more acutely senses its convenience benefits. This is in stark contrast with the more common smartphone, with which the user has a more conscious interaction.

In fact, integration is one of the primary selling points of smart clothing, which allows users to synchronize their clothing with their phones for the sake of convenience. From a privacy perspective, however, this means that all of the implications associated with smartphones are then added to the list of concerns regarding smart clothing. For example, more technologically-advanced smart clothing inventions could have access to a user’s photos, contacts, bank information, and applications, making all of the data, in addition to the collected biometrics, vulnerable to being shared publicly. Another notable example is that embedded speech recognition applications in both smartphones and smart clothing allow the convenience of hands-free interaction. However, the heightened sensitivity that is needed to be able to pick up on such demands means that even when a user is not alone, a potentially confidential conversation between the user and another party can be captured and stored, once again without knowledge or consent.

The above suggests two concerning points about the privacy risk associated with smart clothing. First, users are already anxious about a host of privacy issues, but the (perhaps more noticeable) benefits offered by these devices causes them to become more willing to sacrifice their privacy. Second, even though users have articulated some concerns, these are often misdirected or underestimated. This means that users do not know precisely what to worry about, and are therefore ill-equipped to protect themselves. Indeed, new applications, such as facial recognition software embedded in smart technologies offer such a profound sense of convenience and marketable novelty that consumers willingly allow a device to repeatedlycapture and store every inch of their face. This misplaced sense of trust in smart technologies, and particularly smart clothing, presents a significant barrier to technological advancement, as users’ engagement is difficult to predict.

This is the second post in the Toronto Wearables Series in IP Osgoode’s IPIlogue.

One of Wearable Technology’s Most Prominent Homes: Toronto

Toronto is quickly becoming a leader in the wearable technology industry, and is home to several innovative start-ups that have been very active in this field. In particular, there has been a focus on using wearable technology in relation to fitness and medical needs, with biometrics being a primary indicator. 

 To support this activity, Toronto has seen a rise in several organizations aimed at raising awareness regarding the conversation around wearable technology. FashionTech Toronto, for example, is “a platform to connect innovators and leaders in the fashion and tech fields”, and hosts multiple meet-ups to facilitate this interaction. Electric Runway, which originally started as “a wearable technology runway show curated for the Maker Festival in Toronto” has now grown into an international brand and expanded to hosting speaking engagements, consulting, and creating public engagement through their considerable online presence.  We Are Wearables also has an active Toronto chapter and has a mission to “foster adoption and facilitate innovation in wearable tech by providing a platform for the entrepreneurs, start-ups and organizations who are already making this happen and a place for those new to the space to be inspired to take action.” 


As such, it is no surprise that Toronto start-ups have recognized the flourishing wearable technology community and have begun creating innovative designs in response. Blue Block Glasses serves as a prime example. The Toronto-based start-up gave Team Canada’s freestyle skiers 30 pairs of Somnitude eyewear before the team went to PyeongChang for the 2018 Winter Olympics. The company recognized that athletes need a significant amount of rest in order to perform well; however, the common presence of blue light in daily lives (from phones and other screens) has the potential to significantly impact sleeping patterns. If the glasses are worn a few hours before bed, it helps supress melatonin, which is the hormone that induces sleep. Due to the delay that is caused by the suppression, there is a shift in the circadian phase of sleep to later in the night, which allows athletes (or others with similar lifestyles) to overcome jetlag much more quickly. 

 Nymi is another disruptive Toronto start-up, being the first wearable technology to actually identify users by using their heartbeat. This identification allows their heartbeat to act as a passcode to connect to computers, phones, smart office technology, and possibly driverless cars in the future. Furthermore, the start-up partnered with MasterCard and is working on a method of completing a credit card transaction using the heartbeat indicator. 

Of course, all of these applications have legal implications in relation to intellectual property, privacy, etc. and have to comply with related regulations. So, the question becomes, are our regulations well-equipped to deal with this new wave of technology, or do we need to think more critically about updates?

Nōwn POS Delivers What Customers Want Most: Loyalty

We are so fortunate to have crossed paths with Kristin Dorsey, the Director of Marketing and Communications at Nōwn POS, at the recent FashionTech TO event. 

Nōwn POS has developed a technology that has the potential to revolutionize retail through customer loyalty. By enabling its system to recognize all Nown customers and display their name, picture, and purchase history, customers can feel valued, which will in turn enrich their shopping experience. At a time in which everything is fast-paced and efficiency is the ultimate goal, Nōwn POS has found a way to capture a single moment and allow a customer to feel appreciated, while balancing that with efficiency. Indeed, the technology is the result of conversations between Kristin and Nōwn POS’s in-house designer about what merchants and consumers would want from this solution.  They discussed the consumer experience — being able to walk into your favourite coffee shop or retail store and be known, hence the name of the business. In February of 2017, Kristin sat down with the CEO of Nōwn POS to talk about how there should be a focus on personalized customer experience and advocated for a change in the direction and the goal of the company. This narrowed focus has certainly resulted in a notable benefit for consumers. 

 Furthermore, retailers can also benefit from this technology because they can truly know their customers. This can inevitably streamline sales and avoid a one-size-fits-all selling approach. Their technology is a win-win. 

 Of course, all of this came after significant demographic and societal research into how the market operates. While “loyalty programs” have become a common marketing strategy, it is not in the best interest of a business to encourage a customer base that simply wants free rewards. Rather, businesses need to change the behaviour and emotion of their customers, which can be effectively done by remembering a customer’s favourite items and additional details of her profile. Indeed, the majority of the population almost expects this to a certain degree because of innovations like Amazon, which have incorporated this element of personalization into their operations.  

 From a legal perspective, it is important to note that Nōwn POS doesn’t collect invasive personal data (such as a shopper’s home address) but rather collects shopping patterns for the sake of a consumer profile, not a personal one. 

In the same way that Nōwn POS is bridging a gap between an in-person shopping experience with the more personalized online experience, it is important for legal professionals to also bridge a gap between the law and engineering, tech, and fashion, in order to protect helpful technologies like this, especially from the directly applicable privacy regulations. 



Interested in Participating in the COFO Design Challenge?

We are so happy to have an ongoing relationship with COFO Design Inc. So, it is our pleasure to share a message on their behalf regarding their upcoming design challenge:

What’s up Interior & Industrial Designers!

We are pleased to announce that the 2nd Annual COFO Design Challenge has begun! COFO gives emerging designers the opportunity to see their own designs realized in the real world. 

COFO will also be exhibiting at IDS Toronto this coming January 17-20, 2019 so please stop by Booth#549 (in the MAKER Section) and say hi!

If your idea is selected we will:

+Reward you with a $500 design prize
+Produce your work
+Sell it in our online store
+Pay you a 3% royalty on each unit sold
+All development and prototyping costs covered by COFO.

*Follow us on Instagram for updates @cofo_design

*Deadline for submissions is Feb.28th, 2019
*New and current work accepted
*See website for full rules and regulations
*Questions? Want to keep updated? Contact us at

Check out our website to see the winners from our first Design Challenge. We are excited to announce that The Roque won an International German Design Award!

About COFO
COFO is a multi-disciplinary design studio focusing on Canadian emerging designers & artists in the interior design world. Launched in October of 2017, COFO invites up-and-coming interior & industrial designers to submit furniture designs for inclusion in our Fall 2018 debut collection where the designer receives full credit as well as a commission on sale. We take on all prototyping and product development costs, bring the designer through the manufacturing process and help bring their designs to life. All designed, engineered and manufactured in Canada. We have access to a 90,000 SQFT facility, owned by our parent company Visual Elements, where we manufacture retail interiors for Nordstrom, Coach, Hermes, Kate Spade, Nike and LV, to name a few. 

Launching: InConversation

Over the past few months, Summer and I have come to realize that every entrepreneur that we speak to has a story — a special story that can never be truly retold through words.

This has caused us to want to launch a new segment: InConversation.

InConversation will regularly interview entrepreneurs, scholars, and creatives in the fields of law, technology, art, architecture, and design in order to stimulate a dialogue. This, we hope, will become part of the bigger conversation regarding the intersectionality of these areas.

We hope to enjoy it. Stay tuned.

Introducing: COFO Design

We recently met with COFO Designto discuss the history of the company and its co-founders. 

 The name COFO is a hint at how the company was started by “co-founders” Desmond Chan and Randy Simmen, but also the way in which all of the interior design is “co-founded”— through collaboration with young designers. Chan’s background in fashion and Simmen’s background in manufacturing, with the help of an engineering team, has created a platform for unimaginable designs. 

 The company’s motto is all about inspiring emerging designers to bring forth the most innovative interior designs. Through its annual Design Challenge, COFO encourages designers to submit original work for cutting edge pieces. The participants are judged based on a variety of criteria, including innovation, aesthetic quality, emotional content, usefulness, and environmental responsibility, by several industry leaders, such as Karen Kang, National Director  for the Interior Design Show (IDS)and Tory Healy, Editor of Designlines Magazine. The winner gets a 500 CAD prize and in turn, COFO produces the design and sells the piece through their online platform, with the designer receiving a 3% commission. 

 This is an important mission, as COFO gives young designers, that is students in their final year of a design program or an individual who graduated in the past five years, an early chance to become an entrepreneur, by producing and selling their work. The way the contest was designed was an early point of contention in the industry, as some critics were concerned about the level of commission the designer would receive and intellectual property issues, such as who truly owned the design submission. Ultimately, the designers receive acknowledgement for their proprietary work and receive recognition for this on the online platformand even internationally through awardsand e-commerce platforms

 COFO is investing in the future of “Canadian Design”, what Chan called diversity in design, multicultural individuals coming together to design authentically. By focusing on authentic collaboration, COFO allows designers to get involved in the production process, connect at multiple checkpoints, and bring a diverse set of skills to the table to create beautiful designs. Chan describes it as a “unique synergy of creatives all at one table”.

 The company’s focus on transparent production, sustainability, and innovation set it apart from other Canadian interior design companies. Keep an eye out on this space for future conversation with the company about the way law has impacted their creative work and how their core values are embodied in their design process. 

Written by Summer Lewis.

Fashion for Good - Amsterdam, Netherlands

Recently, during my visit to Amsterdam, I had the privilege of going to the Fashion for Good Museum in the heart of the city, as per Summer’s suggestion.

According to Fashion for Good, “Fashion is stuck in a pattern of ‘take-make-waste’, which causes devastating environmental impacts, not to mention huge economic losses. On average, we buy 60% more clothing than we did 15 years ago — but we keep each item only half as long. Plus, it is estimated that nearly 60% of all clothing produced ends up being burned or in landfills within one year of being made.”

In response, Fashion for Good aims to bring together the entire fashion ecosystem through their Innovation Platform to create change. This platform supports high-potential startup businesses and technologies. They offer assistance based on business maturity through three key programmes: the Fashion for Good-Plug and Play Accelerator, the Scaling Programme, and the Good Fashion Fund.

According to the team, the “Good” in Fashion for Good is defined as the following:

Good Materials  –  safe, healthy and designed for reuse and recycling
Good Economy  – growing, circular, shared and benefiting everyone
Good Energy  – renewable and clean
Good Water  – clean and available to all
Good Lives  – living and working conditions that are just, safe and dignified

In other words, it is not simply about looking good, or even buying and owning clothing that is mostly good.

During my visit, I was also able to commit to multiple promises in an effort to help reduce waste as a member of the fashion community.

It was a privilege to be there both personally and on behalf of the Women of Wearables Toronto Chapter, and I would highly recommend that you visit the museum if you happen to be in Amsterdam.

More on the Fashion for Good Innovation Platform Alumni soon.

Women of Wearables - Toronto Ambassador

It is my absolute pleasure to have been appointed the Toronto Ambassador for Women of Wearables (WoW).

WoW is the first global organization aiming to inspire, support and connect women in wearable tech, fashion tech, smart textiles, IoT, health tech, and VR/AR. 

With headquarters in London (UK) and more than 10,000 members located around the globe, WoW has become a global movement that supports its growing community through events, mentorship, educational programs, and collaboration with its network of local ambassadors and partners. 

WoW has been recognized as an organization that supports and promotes diversity globally, with several nominations and awards for related contributions.

Summer and I will be planning events for the WoW Toronto chapter and we will be sure to post updates. Until then, please feel free to learn more about WoW.

AccessAR: A Pioneer in Online Retail

As one of the many benefits we reaped from attending the Fashion Tech TO event a few weeks ago, we recently had the opportunity to catch up with Chrissy Gow, the Co-founder and CEO of AccessAR. We had the pleasure of seeing Chrissy, along with her Co-founder and CPO, Joscelyn Sevier, perform a demo of their technology at the event. 

AccessAR aims “to foster an environment of creative collaboration where design thinkers and engineers challenge each other to build better solutions.”  In doing this, they have created a SaaS-based augmented reality framework for fashion e-commerce. At this stage, users are able to interact with the product to virtually try on sunglasses, in real-time (taking the user’s lighting and environment into account) and then have a directlink to purchase. This essentially makes one of the most difficult purchases not only easy, but also enjoyable. 

The Founders’ inspiration came from the fact that the first generation of this technology already existed, with the widely used Instagram and Snapchat filters, but this was limited. Indeed, it had not yet been integrated into fashion, or e-commerce, for that matter. It was at this point where the company truly harnessed their mission and created change, allowing technological improvement.

AccessAR is also multifaceted, as it has the potential to assist and disrupt several industries. For example, the technology also allows architects to use its high quality, hyper-realistic, 3D renders. Additionally, next steps include using the technology for jewellery and watches, and enabling high performance web-based experiences.  

As far as the legal world is involved, AccessAR seems well situated and aware of the relevant legal climate with respect to its technology. Nevertheless, there often exists a knowledge gap between the fields of fashion, engineering, and law. As a result, it is imperative upon those in law to understand such applications and be able to clearly predict its high potential. It is at this juncture, where commercialization of the technology offers the highest benefits.

Given AccessAR’s high potential, we are going to follow up with Chrissy by checking out their creative space vis-à-vis a soon-to-be-announced video series. Stay tuned. 

Very Pleased to Announce Summer Lewis as Chief Communications Director

We are growing, and growing well.

Summer is an immensely talented, hard working, passionate law student and I am so pleased to have her onboard.

Summer is a first year student at Osgoode Hall Law School. She has spent over a year writing about the pressing legal issues that arise in the fashion industry. She continues to explore her interest in intellectual property across a variety of digital platforms, including Unprecedentedly Chic and IP Osgoode's IPilogue. Through these platforms, Summer has advocated for sustainability in the fashion industry, an increased representation of women and minority groups in STEM industries, and the protection of creative ideas. 

Summer's experience in fellowship and leadership programs, such as with Mindtrust and Osgoode’s Innovation Clinic, has led her to explore the entrepreneurial process and appreciate the knowledge gap between creative entrepreneurship and the law. As such, she hopes to use this platform as a way to connect with creatives and start-ups, especially those who work with disruptive technologies, in order to delve into the unexplored legal implications behind their work.

Together, we aim to pioneer new fields and build a bridge where necessary.  

The First Knitted Concrete Structure

A team from ETH Zurich in Switzerland has developed technology that allows them to knit textiles to create architectural structures. 

The knitting pattern behind their structure, KnitCandela, was designed by a computer. During a 36-hour process, an industrial knitting machine followed this computer-generated pattern to create four strips of textile. When putting the structure together, the pieces of textile were raised and tensioned between temporary frames. Then, a cement mixture was sprayed on the structure to strengthen it.  

The implications of this knitting technology are essential in a time where we are seeking more sustainable forms of design. This is the first time knitting has been used to create a structure in architecture. The team's research has demonstrated that just like 3D printing, this new application of knitting can simplify construction and cut down on materials, labour, and waste. 

The flexibility of the textile will allow for complex shapes to take form, thus modernizing architecture and providing designers with a new application to consider in their creative works. The reliance on industrial knitting machines also makes the process more accessible for future applications, as the process still depends on conventional technology. 

 KnitCandela is currently on display in the Museo Universitario Arte Contemporáneoin Mexico City.

This article was prepared by Summer Lewis, Chief Communications Director at

3D Fittings To Make Online Shopping Even Easier

A 2018 Alphawise survey indicated that approximately 81% of respondents stated they had purchased clothing online, as opposed to a brick and mortar store. This number is up from 71% in 2010.

Now, technology has the power to further increase this statistic. Indeed, 3D body-scanning could make shopping even easier. This emerging technology “would allow consumers to use cameras and lasers on their mobile devices to capture precise body measurements”. This would not only instil confidence in a buyer who is shopping online, but could also minimize returns and exchanges due to a poor fit: a win for both the consumer and the buyer.

Technology, once again, has the power to disrupt and streamline an industry.

On October 29, I had the privilege to attend an event hosted by Fashion Tech Toronto, which showcased leaders in the fashion and technology space and allowed entrepreneurs to tell us about their inventions. Among these creatives, were the founders of Passen, named after the German word for “fit”. Their technology was geared to do exactly this, and a demonstration of their product proved how easy and fast 3D scanning would be.

As a law student, however, questions about privacy implications quickly filled my mind and I became immensely intrigued at how the company is handling such concerns.

So, stay tuned for more updates on Passen, as well as Fashion Tech Toronto, for answers to such questions.

Therapeutic Clothing that Hugs

Sensewear is the newest innovation in smart clothing that is making a social impact. 

Emanuela Corti and Ivan Parati created a collection of smart clothing to address a gap in the fashion-tech industry. Their designs aim to help those affected by sensory processing disorder (SPD). Individuals with SPD, especially those who are on the autism spectrum, have complications with processing everyday stimuli. Hypersensitivity, for example, is a common symptom. Individuals may have an enhanced sensitivity to sounds, smells, and touch. 

 If sensitivity to physical contact is heightened, imagine how the texture of clothing and its stitching and labels can become a source of pain during daily wear. 

Corti and Parati looked for several solutions to this issue including an alternative 3D knitting process and a method that could combine therapeutic objects and clothing. At the core of their collection is a smart t-shirt that collects data on heart rate, breath frequency, and movement. This indicates the wearer's stress level, which will trigger the functions of the other garments. One of these garments is "sensewear for emotional emergencies". It appears to be a scarf, but the individual can also wear it as a pull-over. Once the piece is worn as a pull-over, it uses deep touch pressure (DTP) therapy to mimic a hug. 

Their design has pioneered a new iteration of health technology that can reduce the symptoms of SPD. Health technology in smart clothing is often linked to fitness gear, such as yoga pants that provide haptic feedback to muscles to correct positions. However, this development is a compromise between style and scientific utility. The technology is inconspicuous and allows for a dose of physical therapy during daily activities. The duo hopes to expand their technology into interior design in order to tackle the much larger issue of how to improve the discomfort individuals with SPD feel from overstimulation. 

This post was written by Summer Lewis, first-year law student at Osgoode Hall, Toronto.

Taking the Lead - Philip Beesley

The intersectionality of fashion, technology, and design is only now starting to be explored. Philip Beesley, however, has been active in this field for some time now.

Philip Beesley is a practicing visual artist, architect, and Professor in Architecture at the University of Waterloo and Professor of Digital Design and Architecture & Urbanism at the European Graduate School. Beesley's work is widely cited in contemporary art and architecture, focused in the rapidly expanding technology and culture of responsive and interactive systems.

Beesley was educated in visual art at Queen's University, in technology at Humber College, and in architecture at the University of Toronto. His Toronto-based practice, Philip Beesley Architect Inc., operates in partnership with Rolf Seifert and the Waterloo-based Adaptive Systems Group, and in numerous collaborations including longstanding exchanges with couture designer Iris van Herpen and futurist Rachel Armstrong. 

Beesley’s ground-breaking exhibit at the Royal Ontario Museum, in collaboration with van Herpen explored how intelligence and technology are changing industries. This enabled these two visionaries to bring their worlds to one exhibit and demonstrate how their respective industries are transforming.

Through the use of 3D printing and responsive design, these two “kindred spirits” are taking the lead.

Take the tour.